If a doctor suspects adenomyosis, the first step will be a pelvic examination which may reveal an enlarged and tender uterus.
A laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that allows the surgeon to access the inside of the abdomen and the pelvis.
Laparoscopy is minimally invasive, or keyhole, surgery. The surgeon does not have to make large incisions (cuts) in the skin. This is made possible with an instrument called a laparoscope.
This proceedure is done generally with a full bladder, which allows better visualization of pelvic organs. The proceedure can also be done transvaginally with a specifically designed vaginal transducer it gives better resolution of the ovaries, uterus and the lining of the womb. An ultrasound allows a doctor to see the uterus, its lining, and its muscular wall. It cannot definitively diagnose adenomyosis, but it can help to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also be used to confirm a diagnosis of adenomyosis in women with abnormal uterine bleeding. (Mine was spotted with an ultrasound using colour flow doppler which showed the damaged areas of the uterus and blood flow around the affected areas. (This is what such a colour flow doppler MRI looks like - the bright red to white areas indicate blood leaking from the 'tumour' areas.)
Once a diagnosis has been made, treatment is the next stage.